Understanding your choice of forged rotors options
At Jihua, we understand the importance of having the best products for your vehicle. That’s why we offer high-quality forged rotor solutions to provide you with the ultimate driving experience. Whether you are a professional racer or a car enthusiast, our forged rotors solutions will exceed your expectations and give you the performance and reliability you need.
The choice of forged rotors will depend on your personal preference and driving style. However, with the right choice of forged rotors, you can be assured of improved stopping power, reduced brake fade, and increased durability, resulting in a safer and more enjoyable driving experience.
What is a forged rotor?
A forged rotor refers to a rotating body supported by bearings. Objects such as optical discs that do not have their rotating axis can be considered forged rotors when they are rigidly connected or have additional axes.
Types of forged rotors
Several types of forged rotors are designed to cater to specific requirements and applications. In this section, we will discuss the most common types of forged rotors:
One-Piece Forged Rotors
One-piece forged rotors are crafted from a single piece of metal, typically high-grade steel or aluminum alloy. These rotors offer a perfect balance between performance, durability, and cost-effectiveness. They suit most street and track applications, including sports cars, high-performance sedans, and track-focused vehicles.
Two-Piece Forged Rotors
Two-piece forged rotors have a separate hub and rotor surface connected by bolts or pins. This design allows for improved heat dissipation and reduced weight compared to one-piece rotors. Two-piece forged rotors are favored in high-performance applications, such as professional motorsports, where weight reduction and thermal efficiency are critical.
Slotted Forged Rotors
Slotted forged rotors feature grooves or slots machined into the rotor surface. These slots improve heat dissipation, reduce brake fade, and enhance brake pad bite. Slotted rotors are ideal for high-performance street cars and occasional track use, where consistent braking performance is essential.
Cross-Drilled Forged Rotors
Cross-drilled forged rotors have holes drilled through the rotor surface to facilitate better cooling and gas evacuation. These rotors offer enhanced braking performance, especially in wet conditions, by helping to prevent the buildup of water and gas between the rotor and brake pad. Cross-drilled rotors suit street cars, track-day enthusiasts, and light motorsport applications.
Combination Slotted and Cross-Drilled Forged Rotors
Combination rotors offer the best of both worlds for those seeking the benefits of both slotted and cross-drilled designs. These rotors provide excellent heat dissipation and consistent braking performance, ideal for high-performance street cars and track day events.
Materials Used in Forged Rotors
Forged rotors can be made from various materials, each with unique properties suited for specific applications. Some common materials include:
|Titanium forged rings||ASTM B381 / ASME SB381, Titanium Gr. 1, Titanium Gr. 2, Titanium Gr. 4, Titanium Gr. 5, Titanium Gr. 7, ASTM R50250/GR.1| R50400/GR.2 | R50550/GR.3 | R50700/GR.4 | GR.6 |R52400/GR.7 | R53400/GR.12 | R56320/GR.9 |R56400/GR.5|
|Copper forged rings||T1, T2, C10100, C10200, C10300, C10400, C10500, C10700, C10800, C10910,C10920, TP1, TP2, C10930, C11000, C11300, C11400, C11500, C11600, C12000,C12200, C12300, TU1, TU2, C12500, C14200, C14420, C14500, C14510, C14520, C14530, C17200, C19200, C21000, C23000, C26000, C27000, C27400, C28000, C33000, C33200, C37000, C44300, C44400, C44500, C60800, C63020, C68700, C70400, C70600, C70620, C71000, C71500, C71520, C71640, etc|
|Copper Nickel forged rings||ASTM / ASME SB 61 / 62 / 151 / 152, Copper Nickel 90/10 (C70600 ), Cupro Nickel 70/30 (C71500), UNS C71640|
|Carbon Steel forged rings||ASTM/ASME A/SA105 A/SA105N & A/SA216-WCB, DIN 1.0402, DIN 1.0460, DIN 1.0619, Die Steel, ASTM A105 / ASME SA105, A105N, ASTM A350 LF2 / ASME SA350, High Yield CS ASTM A694 / A694 (F52 F56 F60 F65 F70 F80)|
|Stainless Steel forged rings||ASTM/ASME A/SA182 F304, F304L, F316, F316L, ASTM/ASME A/SA351 CF8, CF3, CF8M, CF3M, DIN 1.4301, DIN 1.4306, DIN 1.4401, DIN 1.4404, DIN 1.4308, DIN 1.4408, DIN 1.4306, DIN 1.4409|
|Alloy Steel forged rings||ASTM A182 / ASME SA182 F5, F9, F11, F12, F22, F91|
|Hastelloy forged rings||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Hastelloy C276 (UNS N10276), C22 (UNS N06022), C4, C2000, B2, B3, X|
|Brass forged rings||3602 / 2604 / H59 / H62 / etc.|
|Inconel forged rings||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Inconel 600, 601, 625, 718, 783, 690, x750|
|Monel forged rings||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Monel 400 (UNS No. N04400), Monel 500 (UNS No. N05500)|
|Duplex forged rings||S31803 / S32205 A182 Gr F51 / F52 / F53 / F54 / F55 / F57 / F59 / F60 / F61|
|Super Duplex forged rings||S32750 / S32760 A182 Gr F51 / F52 / F53 / F54 / F55 / F57 / F59 / F60 / F61|
|Alloy 20 forged rings||ASTM B462 / ASME SB462, Carpenter 20 Alloy, Alloy 20Cb-3|
|Aluminium forged rings||5052 /6061/ 6063 / 2017 / 7075 / etc.|
|Nickel forged rings||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Nickel 200, Nickel 201, Nickel 205, Nickel 205LC|
|Nimonic forged rings||Nimonic 75, Nimonic 80A, Nimonic 90|
|Other forged ringsmaterial||Tin bronze, Alumunum bronze, Lead bronze|
|Incoloy forged rings||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Incoloy 800, 800H, 800HT (UNS N08800), 825 (UNS N08825), 925|
|254 Smo forged rings||ASTM A182 / ASME SA182, SMO 254/6Mo, UNS S31254, DIN 1.4547|
Dimensions of Forged Rotors
The dimensions of forged rotors vary depending on the application, vehicle type, and performance requirements. However, some key dimensions to consider include the following:
Diameter: The rotor diameter plays a significant role in determining the braking performance, with larger diameters offering increased heat dissipation and better leverage for the brake calipers. Common rotor diameters range from 300mm to 400mm, with larger diameters typically found on high-performance vehicles and race cars.
Thickness: Rotor thickness is another crucial dimension, affecting heat capacity and resistance to warping. Thicker rotors can handle more heat and are less prone to warping, while thinner rotors may be more suitable for lighter vehicles or those with less demanding braking requirements. Typical thicknesses for forged rotors range from 25mm to 36mm.
Mounting Height: The mounting height is the distance from the wheel hub surface to the outer edge of the rotor. This dimension is important for ensuring proper alignment between the caliper and rotor and avoiding interference with other suspension components. Mounting heights can vary greatly depending on the vehicle and rotor design.
The Forging Process of forged rotors
The rotor forging of a steam turbine generator is a multi-step shaft type forging with a relatively simple shape. However, rotor forging requires good strength plasticity, uniform structure, and low ductile-brittle transition temperature (FATT). Additionally, the rotor forging usually has a large mass tonnage and high non-destructive testing technical standards. To obtain uniformly organized and high-quality rotor forging, strictly controlling the various manufacturing processes and processes is necessary. Summarize the steel ingot selection and forging process precautions for 30Cr1Mo1V steam turbine rotor forgings to improve the product quality and qualification rate.
Figure.1 30Cr1Mo1V Steam Turbine Rotor Forgings
Selection of steel ingots
Usually, rotor forgings have a large mass tonnage. Due to a large negative segregation precipitate pile at the bottom of the steel ingot, the ingot contains many non-metallic inclusions with high melting points, such as silicates. The riser end of the steel ingot is usually a gathering area of carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, and porosity. Therefore, the utilization rate of the generator rotor forgings is usually 45% -55%. The removal rate of the riser end is 5% -10%, and the removal rate of the bottom end is 10% -20%. The technical requirements for rotor forgings are high, and the effective utilization rate of steel ingots is lower than that of general forgings. The presence of non-metallic inclusions seriously affects the thermoplastic properties of the material, making it difficult for the rotor forging billet to deform at high temperatures.
Moreover, a large amount of non-metallic inclusions remain in the forging, which can initiate microcracks inside the material after subsequent heat treatment and tempering, reducing the toughness performance of the rotor material. Phosphorus increases the cold brittleness of the steel, resulting in poor weldability of the forging. Sulfur is easily combined with Fe atoms to form FeS, Causing brittle cracking of steel during hot forming.
From the analysis of accidents in foreign power plants, it can be seen that the main cause of rotor fracture is not only stress concentration, low lateral plasticity in the center area of the rotor, and high brittle transition temperature but also the presence of a large number of metallurgical defects such as inclusions and porosity in the rotor (and even white spots in some forgings). Due to the large tonnage and mass of rotor forgings, the weight of the selected steel ingot is inevitably large. As the weight of the steel ingot increases, the cooling rate of the central dendrite during solidification of the large cross-section steel ingot is slow, leading to an increase in the tendency of steel ingot composition segregation, porosity, intergranular cracks, and other defects. Therefore, reducing inclusions and ingot segregation in steel has become the first issue that should be taken seriously in producing rotor forgings. Therefore, strict requirements should be placed on the selection of raw materials, baking of furnace materials, improvement of the thermal smelting system, cleanliness of the pouring system, and reasonable chemical composition ratio of steel ingots. Currently, alkaline electric furnaces, vacuum casting technology, and later electro-slag remelting technology are widely used. Alkaline electric furnaces can obtain steel with high purity (sulfur and phosphorus less than 0.010%), and vacuum casting technology greatly reduces the hydrogen content in the steel (1.5ppm), effectively reducing the probability of white spots occurring. The steel ingot remelted by electro slag has fewer non-metallic inclusions, less chemical element segregation, and higher density. Therefore, the electro-slag steel ingot remelted by electro-slag was selected, and the ingot type used was selected φ Table 1 shows the chemical analysis results of a 500-diameter 2.5T electro-slag ingot.
Table.1 Chemical Composition Requirements (wt%)
|Ingot Analysis||0. 30||0.77||0.3||0. 007||0. 06||1.1||0.41||1. 10||0. 22||0.07||0. 008|
Forging process of the rotor
When developing the forging process for the 30Cr1Mo1V rotor of the steam turbine in Figure 1, combined with the high utilization rate of electro-slag steel ingots and the process of rotor forging deformation, including the heating of the steel ingot, the clamping of the steel ingot, upsetting, elongation and other processes, measures were taken to cut off the bottom pad of the electro slag steel ingot and retain the arc end using a saw machine. The article mainly elaborates on the deformation of upsetting and elongation during the forging process. The heating of steel ingots adopts a method of insulation at 1180-1250 ℃ for 5-7 hours.
During the upsetting of the rotor billet, two upsets were used to fully weld the internal defects of the steel ingot, break the as-cast structure, and change the distribution of inclusions. As long as the press capacity permits, the degree of upsetting deformation can be reduced (εH) to Greater than 50%. The height-to-diameter ratio (H/D) should be as close to 0.6-0.65. Namely εH=(H0-H)/H0 x 100%>50%; H/D=0.60-0.65, where Ho is the height of the steel ingot before upsetting in millimeters; H is the height of the steel ingot after upsetting in millimeters; D is the diameter of the steel ingot after upsetting in millimeters.
Press the clamp at the arc end of the steel ingot and cut it to φ three hundred × 500, then upsetting the plate to a height of about 600, then elongating the blank to 800 square meters, then upsetting the plate to a height of about 550 square meters, elongating the blank to 400 square meters, and finally pressing the shoulder to elongate to the size of the forging. The finished product has a total forging ratio of>10, and the final forging temperature during the forging process is controlled above 850 ℃.
In the forging process of the 30Cr1Mo1V rotor, two upsets are used to increase the elongation forging ratio and weld the internal defects of the steel ingot. When the steel ingot starts upsetting due to its large height and diameter (usually around 2 for standard steel ingots), it is not transparent, and the central metal bears tensile stress. The defect not only cannot be welded but may also expand. As the alarming deformation increases, when the height-to-diameter ratio is about 1, the middle is subjected to significant compressive stress, and defects can only be welded together. During the upsetting of steel ingots, uneven deformation of the billet occurs due to friction, with a large degree of deformation in the middle and a small amount at both ends. So, the internal defects in the middle are first welded together, and as the degree of upsetting deformation increases, the defects at both ends gradually weld together. When forging a rotor, a handle is usually used for upsetting. The metal deformation near the clamp is very small, and this area has many central defects. Even if the upsetting deformation is large, it is difficult to weld. Due to uneven deformation during upsetting, the internal defects in the middle section of the steel ingot are first welded. When the upsetting deformation is sufficient, the defects are fully welded. This part is used to forge the rotor shaft, improving the forging quality. In addition, increasing the upsetting process can increase the elongation forging ratio.
Elongation deformation is one of rotor forging technology’s most basic and important operations. The forging quality of rotor forgings (such as macroscopic analysis, ultrasonic testing results, transverse and longitudinal mechanical properties, etc.) depends to a certain extent on the quality of elongation deformation. During the elongation forging of rotor forgings, factors such as the feed rate, reduction, deformation method, size, and shape of the anvil, and forging temperature during elongation deformation also have a significant impact on the quality of the rotor forgings. When a round billet is drawn on a flat anvil, especially when it is rolled, it exerts transverse stress at the center, which not only prevents welding defects but also has the possibility of producing defects at the center. Therefore, using upper flat anvils and lower V-shaped anvils in processes such as rotor pressing, forming, rounding, and correction is appropriate. Therefore, during the elongation process, try to ensure that the relative feed rate of elongation is equal to 0.5-0.8, and use full anvil feeding and high temperature and large reduction to complete the main deformation process to ensure the quality of the rotor; In the elongation process of rotor forging, the forging ratio, reduction, relative feed rate, anvil type, deformation method, etc. all seriously affect the final quality of the rotor product. When stretching, try to achieve uniform deformation of the billet and make the centerline of the forging coincide with the centerline of the steel ingot.
Post-forging heat treatment of the rotor (see Figure 2)
The 30Cr1Mo1V steam turbine rotor forging in the article has a small mass tonnage and adopts a heat treatment process of normalizing and tempering after forging. The normalizing and tempering process is 950-980 ℃ and 680-720 ℃, with a uniform structure, which prepares for the preliminary heat treatment of the subsequent rotor forging.
Figure.2 Post-forging heat treatment process for rotor forgings
The rotor is one of the key components that determine the operating speed of the steam turbine. At the same time, high-quality rotors can also improve the unit’s service life, reduce the rotor operation’s failure rate, and improve the efficiency of kinetic energy conversion. Therefore, continuously optimizing the performance of rotor products requires continuous optimization of the manufacturing process. Related manufacturing processes, such as forging, also need to be continuously optimized to improve the quality of rotor products. To improve the overall manufacturing level of the manufacturing industry.
Selecting the Right Forged Rotor for Your Vehicle
To choose the best forged rotor for your vehicle, consider the following factors:
Driving style and conditions: Determine the driving you primarily engage in, whether it’s daily commuting, spirited driving on twisty roads, or track events. This will help you select the appropriate rotor type for your needs.
Vehicle weight and performance: Heavier and more powerful vehicles may require more aggressive rotor designs, such as slotted or cross-drilled rotors, to cope with the increased heat and stress generated during braking.
Brake system compatibility: Ensure that the chosen forged rotor is compatible with your vehicle’s existing brake system, including the calipers, pads, and brake lines.
Budget: Forged rotors can vary significantly in price, so balancing performance requirements with your budget is essential.
Maintaining Your Forged Rotors
Proper maintenance of forged rotors ensures their longevity and optimal performance. Here are some essential maintenance tips for forged rotors:
Regularly inspect rotors: Periodically check your rotors for signs of wear, cracking, or warping. If you notice any issues, consult a professional mechanic to assess the severity and determine whether a replacement is necessary.
Replace brake pads: Worn brake pads can compromise your braking performance and cause damage to your rotors. Monitor your brake pad thickness and replace them to maintain effective braking and prevent premature rotor wear.
Avoid overheating: Overheating can lead to rotor warping and reduced braking performance. Avoid excessive or prolonged hard braking, especially during spirited driving or track events, to minimize the risk of overheating.
- Keep rotors clean: Dirt, debris, and brake dust can accumulate on the rotor surface, affecting heat dissipation and braking performance. Clean your rotors with a soft brush and brake cleaner to remove buildup.
How to select forged rotors manufacturer?
Selecting the manufacturer of the right forged rotor requires careful consideration of various factors, including quality, experience, capacity, customization, certification, pricing, location, reputation, and additional services offered. By considering all these aspects, you can make an informed decision and choose a reliable and experienced manufacturer that will deliver high-quality forged rotors for your project.
Factors to Consider when Selecting a Forged Rotors Manufacturer
The quality of the forged rotors is of paramount importance. Always choose a manufacturer that adheres to strict quality control standards and utilizes advanced technology to produce high-quality forged rotors.
The manufacturer’s experience in the industry is an essential factor to consider. An experienced manufacturer will have the knowledge and expertise to produce high-quality forged rotors and meet your requirements.
The production capacity of the manufacturer should be taken into account. Ensure the manufacturer can handle your order volume, whether a small or large-scale project.
Your project may require customized forged rotors with unique specifications. Choose a manufacturer offering customization options, ensuring they meet your specific needs.
Check if the manufacturer holds relevant certifications, such as ISO or AS9100. These certifications are an indication of their commitment to quality and industry standards.
While pricing should not be the sole determining factor, it is essential to consider the cost of the forged rotors. Select a manufacturer that offers competitive pricing without compromising quality.
The location of the manufacturer can affect shipping times and logistics costs. Opt for a conveniently located manufacturer that can deliver the forged rotors within your desired timeframe.
Evaluating a Manufacturer’s Reputation
A. Customer Reviews
Read through customer reviews and testimonials to understand the manufacturer’s reputation. Positive feedback from satisfied customers is a good indication of the manufacturer’s reliability and commitment to quality.
B. Industry Recognition
Look for manufacturers that have received industry awards or recognition, which indicates their dedication to excellence and innovation in forged rotors manufacturing.
Additional Services Offered
A. In-House Testing
Choose a manufacturer that offers in-house testing and inspection services. This ensures that the forged rotors meet your specifications and quality requirements before shipping them.
B. On-Time Delivery
On-time delivery is crucial for any project. Select a manufacturer with a track record of delivering orders on time to avoid potential delays or disruptions to your project schedule.
C. After-Sales Support
After-sales support is an essential aspect of any business relationship. Choose a manufacturer that offers excellent customer service and support, including addressing any concerns or issues you may have with the forged rotors after delivery.
Why Choose Jihua to Be Your forged rotor Supplier?
At Jihua, we pride ourselves on providing top-notch forged rotors that meet industry standards. Our state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities and experienced team of engineers ensure that every forged rotor we produce is exceptional, with precise dimensions and impeccable surface finish. By choosing Jihua as your forged rotor supplier, you can be confident that you are receiving products that will exceed your expectations and stand the test of time.
Wide Range of Materials and Sizes
Our extensive selection of materials and sizes sets us apart from other forged rotor suppliers. We offer a diverse range of metals, including stainless steel, alloy steel, carbon steel, and superalloys, to meet the unique requirements of various industries. Our forged rotors are available in various diameters and lengths, ensuring we can fulfill any order, no matter how specialized or demanding.
Tailored Solutions for Your Specific Needs
At Jihua, we understand that each customer has unique requirements and challenges. That’s why we offer customized solutions tailored to your specific needs. Our skilled engineers will work closely with you to develop and produce forged rotors that meet your specifications. Whether you require a particular material, size, or surface finish, we have the expertise and resources to deliver the perfect solution for your project.
Competitive Pricing and Exceptional Value
We know that cost is crucial when selecting a forged rotor supplier. At Jihua, we are committed to providing our customers with competitive pricing without compromising quality. Our streamlined manufacturing processes and extensive industry experience allow us to offer exceptional value, ensuring that you receive the best possible product at a fair price.
Fast Lead Times and Reliable Delivery
In today’s fast-paced business world, time is of the essence. We understand the importance of delivering your forged rotors promptly and reliably. Our efficient production processes and well-established logistics network ensure that your order will be completed and delivered on time every time. By choosing Jihua as your forged rotor supplier, you can rest assured that your project will stay on track and schedule.
Unparalleled Customer Support
Customer satisfaction is at the core of our business. Our dedicated customer support team is always available to answer any questions or address any concerns. From the moment you place your order to the final delivery of your forged rotors, we will be with you every step to ensure a seamless and hassle-free experience.
Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing
At Jihua, we recognize the importance of protecting the environment and are committed to sustainable manufacturing practices. Our eco-friendly production processes and adherence to strict environmental regulations ensure that our forged rotors are produced with minimal environmental impact. By choosing Jihua as your forged rotor supplier, you can be confident that you are partnering with a company that values and prioritizes environmental responsibility.
Global Presence and Reputation
As a leading global forged rotor supplier, Jihua has established a strong presence and reputation in the international market. Our extensive network of satisfied customers and partners is a testament to our commitment to quality, innovation, and customer service. By partnering with Jihua, you can be assured that you are working with a company with the expertise and resources to support your business globally.
State-of-the-Art Research and Development
Innovation is at the heart of our success at Jihua. Our research and development team is constantly exploring new materials, technologies, and manufacturing techniques to improve the performance and durability of our forged rotors. By staying at the forefront of industry advancements, we can offer our customers cutting-edge products that set the standard for quality and performance. When you choose Jihua as your forged rotor supplier, you can be sure that you are receiving products incorporating the latest industry innovations.
Strict Quality Control and Assurance
To guarantee the highest quality forged rotors, we have implemented a rigorous quality control and assurance system at every stage of the production process. From selecting raw materials to the final inspection and testing finished products, our experienced quality control team ensures that every forged rotor meets our strict quality standards. By maintaining our unwavering commitment to quality, we can provide our customers with forged rotors they can trust to perform reliably in even the most demanding applications.
Certifications and Compliance
As a leading forged rotor supplier, Jihua is fully committed to complying with all applicable industry standards and regulations. We hold various certifications, including ISO, demonstrating our dedication to maintaining the highest levels of quality and safety in our products and processes. By choosing Jihua as your forged rotor supplier, you can be certain that you are partnering with a company that values compliance and adheres to the strictest industry standards.
Long-Term Partnerships and Collaboration
At Jihua, we believe in building long-lasting relationships with our customers and partners. By fostering a collaborative environment and maintaining open lines of communication, we can better understand your needs and work together to achieve your goals. Our commitment to long-term partnerships ensures we can provide ongoing support and resources to help your business grow and succeed.
Experience and Expertise
With years of experience in the forged rotor industry, our team of skilled professionals has the knowledge and expertise to provide you with the best possible solutions for your projects. Our in-depth understanding of various industries unique requirements and challenges enables us to offer expert guidance and advice to help you make the best decisions for your business.
Jihua is the ideal choice for your forged rotor supplier due to our commitment to quality, innovation, customer satisfaction, and environmental responsibility. Our extensive range of products, tailored solutions, competitive pricing, fast lead times, and exceptional customer support make us the preferred partner for businesses worldwide. By choosing Jihua as your forged rotor supplier, you can be confident that you are working with a company dedicated to your success.
Our forging product types
|Item||Type||Section size/mm||Length/Height mm||Weight/ton|
|1||Circle/step axis class||Ø100-Ø1500||≤15000||≤15|
|4||Pie type class||Ø200-Ø2400||≤700||≤12|
|5||Valve box/rotor type||Ø250-1200||≤2000||≤12|
|Rotor flange type|
|7||Cross axis class||≤Ø2000||≤500||≤10|
Export Country For Forged Rotors
|MIDDLE EAST||AFRICA||NORTH AMERICA||EUROPE||ASIA||SOUTH AMERICA|
|Oman||Sudan||Trinidad And Tobago||Spain||South Korea||Ecuador|
|Turkey||The Republic Of Congo||Bahamas||Netherland||Sri Lanka||Paraguay|