Understanding your choice of forged bars options
As a buyer, understanding your choice of forged bars options can be a daunting task. With a plethora of options available in the market, it can be overwhelming to know which option to choose that best suits your needs. In this article, we’ll provide you with comprehensive details on forged bars to help you make an informed decision when purchasing.
Understanding your choice of forged bars options is crucial in selecting the best option that suits your needs. Consider factors such as material type, size and shape, manufacturing process, and cost when making your choice. Choose forged bars for their exceptional strength, reduced risk of failure, cost-effectiveness, and customization options.
What are forged bars?
Forged bars are made from metal ingots, which are hot-rolled or forged. The forged rod generally refers to a simple section profile. The ratio of length to cross-sectional circumference is quite large, and there is no obvious convex and concave part of the cross-section of the metal plastic processing of refined products, also called bars or ordinary section profiles, including square bars, round bars, flat bars, and hexagonal bars, etc.
Types of forged bars
There are four main types of forged bars: round bars, flat bars, square bars, and hexagonal bars.
Round Bars: Versatile and Durable
Round bars are cylindrical metal bars with a uniform cross-sectional area. They are versatile, strong, and durable, making them popular for various applications. Round bars are commonly used in automotive components, shafts, gears, axles, bolts, and other machinery parts. They are also employed in the construction industry for reinforcement purposes and in the fabrication of handrails, balustrades, and architectural structures.
Some key benefits of round bars include:
- High strength and durability: Round bars offer excellent resistance to bending and torsion forces due to their uniform cross-sectional area.
- Ease of fabrication: Their cylindrical shape makes them easy to machine, weld, and form into various shapes.
- Corrosion resistance: With proper material selection and surface treatment, round bars can be made resistant to corrosion, making them suitable for harsh environments.
Flat Bars: Versatile and Easy to Work With
Flat bars are metal bars with a rectangular cross-section. They are versatile and easy to work with, making them popular in various applications. Flat bars can be found in the construction, automotive, aerospace, and heavy machinery industries. They are used for support braces, framing, base plates, brackets, and ornamental work.
Key benefits of flat bars include:
- High versatility: Flat bars can be cut, formed, and welded into various shapes and sizes to meet specific requirements.
- Excellent strength: They offer a high strength-to-weight ratio, making them suitable for load-bearing applications.
- Smooth edges: Flat bars typically have smooth edges, reducing the risk of injury during handling and installation.
Square Bars: Strong and Stable
Square bars are metal bars with a square cross-section. They are known for their strength, stability, and resistance to torsion forces. Square bars are commonly used in construction, automotive, and heavy machinery industries. They can be found in structural supports, axles, shafts, and machine components.
Advantages of square bars include:
- High strength: Square bars offer excellent resistance to bending and torsion forces due to their uniform cross-section.
- Easy to the machine: Their regular shape makes them easy to cut, drill, and machine to specific dimensions.
- Aesthetic appeal: Square bars are often used for architectural and decorative purposes due to their clean lines and symmetrical appearance.
Hexagonal Bars: Unique Shape and Superior Grip
Hexagonal bars are metal bars with a hexagonal cross-section. Their unique shape offers superior grip and torque transmission, making them popular in fasteners, bolts, nuts, and threaded components. Hexagonal bars are also used in the construction, automotive, and aerospace industries.
Some notable benefits of hexagonal bars include the following:
- Superior grip: The hexagonal shape offers excellent grip and torque transmission, making them ideal for fasteners and threaded components.
- High strength and durability: Like other forged bars, hexagonal bars offer excellent resistance to bending and torsion forces.
- Aesthetic appeal: The unique hexagonal shape adds an interesting visual element to architectural and decorative applications.
Materials Used in Forged Bars
Forged bars can be made from various materials, each with unique properties suited for specific applications. Some common materials include:
|Titanium forged bars||ASTM B381 / ASME SB381, Titanium Gr. 1, Titanium Gr. 2, Titanium Gr. 4, Titanium Gr. 5, Titanium Gr. 7, ASTM R50250/GR.1| R50400/GR.2 | R50550/GR.3 | R50700/GR.4 | GR.6 |R52400/GR.7 | R53400/GR.12 | R56320/GR.9 |R56400/GR.5|
|Copper forged bars||T1, T2, C10100, C10200, C10300, C10400, C10500, C10700, C10800, C10910,C10920, TP1, TP2, C10930, C11000, C11300, C11400, C11500, C11600, C12000,C12200, C12300, TU1, TU2, C12500, C14200, C14420, C14500, C14510, C14520, C14530, C17200, C19200, C21000, C23000, C26000, C27000, C27400, C28000, C33000, C33200, C37000, C44300, C44400, C44500, C60800, C63020, C68700, C70400, C70600, C70620, C71000, C71500, C71520, C71640, etc|
|Copper Nickel forged bars||ASTM / ASME SB 61 / 62 / 151 / 152, Copper Nickel 90/10 (C70600 ), Cupro Nickel 70/30 (C71500), UNS C71640|
|Carbon Steel forged bars||ASTM/ASME A/SA105 A/SA105N & A/SA216-WCB, DIN 1.0402, DIN 1.0460, DIN 1.0619, Die Steel, ASTM A105 / ASME SA105, A105N, ASTM A350 LF2 / ASME SA350, High Yield CS ASTM A694 / A694 (F52 F56 F60 F65 F70 F80)|
|Stainless Steel forged bars||ASTM/ASME A/SA182 F304, F304L, F316, F316L, ASTM/ASME A/SA351 CF8, CF3, CF8M, CF3M, DIN 1.4301, DIN 1.4306, DIN 1.4401, DIN 1.4404, DIN 1.4308, DIN 1.4408, DIN 1.4306, DIN 1.4409|
|Alloy Steel forged bars||ASTM A182 / ASME SA182 F5, F9, F11, F12, F22, F91|
|Hastelloy forged bars||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Hastelloy C276 (UNS N10276), C22 (UNS N06022), C4, C2000, B2, B3, X|
|Brass forged bars||3602 / 2604 / H59 / H62 / etc.|
|Inconel forged bars||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Inconel 600, 601, 625, 718, 783, 690, x750|
|Monel forged bars||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Monel 400 (UNS No. N04400), Monel 500 (UNS No. N05500)|
|Duplex forged bars||S31803 / S32205 A182 Gr F51 / F52 / F53 / F54 / F55 / F57 / F59 / F60 / F61|
|Super Duplex forged bars||S32750 / S32760 A182 Gr F51 / F52 / F53 / F54 / F55 / F57 / F59 / F60 / F61|
|Alloy 20 forged bars||ASTM B462 / ASME SB462, Carpenter 20 Alloy, Alloy 20Cb-3|
|Aluminium forged bars||5052 /6061/ 6063 / 2017 / 7075 / etc.|
|Nickel forged bars||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Nickel 200, Nickel 201, Nickel 205, Nickel 205LC|
|Nimonic forged bars||Nimonic 75, Nimonic 80A, Nimonic 90|
|Other forged barsmaterial||Tin bronze, Alumunum bronze, Lead bronze|
|Incoloy forged bars||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Incoloy 800, 800H, 800HT (UNS N08800), 825 (UNS N08825), 925|
|254 Smo forged bars||ASTM A182 / ASME SA182, SMO 254/6Mo, UNS S31254, DIN 1.4547|
Dimensions of Forged Bars
A bar is a metal product with a simple cross-section such as round, square, hexagonal, octagonal, etc., with a large length about the cross-sectional dimensions and usually supplied as a solid, straight bar. The dimensions of forged bars depend on manual adjustment during the forging process, and the accuracy depends on the skill level and experience of the adjuster.
Square bars have a square cross-sectional shape, and their specifications are expressed in terms of the size of the side lengths, which are divided into sharp-edged and rounded square bars. The latter is generally used as billets for medium and small mills. The common specifications are 5.5-200mm. It can be used to manufacture various equipment parts, fences, etc.
Round steel with diameter size to indicate the specifications, common round steel diameter of 5.5-250mm, China customary to 10mm or less round steel called wire rod. Round steel with a 10-25mm diameter is commonly used for construction reinforcement and manufacturing bolts and other parts. Round steel with a diameter greater than 30mm is used to manufacture various mechanical parts.
The cross-sectional shape of flat steel is rectangular, and the specifications are expressed in terms of thickness and width. Thickness is generally 5-60mm; width is 10-150mm, mostly used for welding pipe billets and machinery manufacturing.
The distance between the hexagonal shape’s opposite sides expresses the hexagonal steel specification. Hexagonal steel is often produced at an 8-70mm distance on the opposite side and is mostly used for manufacturing nuts and various tools.
Dimensions of Mild Steel – Round Bar
Weight of mild steel round bars can be calculated as：W = 0.0062d2
In the formula:
- W = weight(kg/m)
- d = round diameter (mm)
|Size in mm||Average Weight|
|up to 25 mm ± 0.5; mm 25 mm to 35 mm ± 0.6; mm 35 mm to 50 mm ± 0.8; mm 50 mm to 80 mm ± 1; mm 80 mm to 100 mm ± 1.3; mm 100 mm and above ± 1.6 % of diameter.||± 75 % of total tolerance specified on the size.||10 mm to 16 mm ± 5 %; 16 mm and above ± 3 %||For fixed length : ± 100 mm|
Dimensions of Mild Steel – Square Bars
Weight of mild steel square bars can be calculated as: W = 0.00785s2
In the formula:
- W = weight (kg/m)
- s = square bar side (mm)
|Size in mm||Average Weight|
|10 x 10||0.8||0.2|
|12 x 12||1.1||0.3|
|14 x 14||1.5||0.5|
|16 x 16||2||0.6|
|17 x 17||2.27||0.69|
|20 x 20||3.14||1|
|25 x 25||4.9||1.5|
|32 x 32||8||2.4|
|40 x 40||12.6||3.8|
|42 X 42||13.85||4.22|
|50 x 50||19.6||6|
|53 X 53||22.05||6.72|
|56 x 56||24.6||7.5|
|63 x 63||31.2||9.5|
|Size||Out of squareness||Weight||Length|
|up to 25 mm ± 0.5 mm||± 75 % of total tolerance Specified on the size.||Size 10 to 16 mm ± 5 %; 16 mm and above ± 3 %||For fixed length : ± 100 mm|
|25 mm to 35 mm ± 0.6 mm|
|35 mm to 50 mm ± 0.8 mm|
|50 mm to 80 mm ± 1 mm|
|80 mm to 100 mm ± 1.3 mm|
|100 mm and above ± 1.6 % of side width.|
Dimensions of Mild Steel – Flat Bars
Weight of mild steel square bars can be calculated as: W = 0.0075wt
In the formula:
- W = weight (kg/m)
- w = flat width (mm)
- t = flat thickness (mm)
|Size in mm||Average Weight|
|20 x 4||0.79||0.24|
|20 x 5||0.79||0.24|
|21 x 6||1||0.3|
|25 x 3||0.59||0.19|
|25 x 4||0.79||0.24|
|25 x 5||0.98||0.3|
|25 x 6||1.18||0.4|
|25 x 8||1.57||0.5|
|25 x 10||1.9||0.6|
|25 x 12||2.36||0.7|
|28 x 6||1.3||0.4|
|30 x 3||0.71||0.22|
|30 x 4.7||1.11||0.34|
|30 x 5||1.18||0.4|
|30 x 60||1.4||0.4|
|32 x 5||1.26||0.4|
|32 x 6||1.5||0.5|
|32 x 8||2||0.6|
|32 x 10||2.5||0.8|
|32 x 12||3||0.9|
|38 x 3||0.9||0.3|
|38 x 5||1.5||0.5|
|38 x 12||3.6||1.1|
|40 x 4||1.26||0.38|
|40 x 5||1.57||0.5|
|40 x 6||1.9||0.6|
|40 x 8||2.5||0.8|
|40 x 10||3.1||1|
|40 x 12||3.77||1.2|
|40 x 16||5||1.5|
|40 x 20||6.3||1.9|
|40 x 25||7.85||2.4|
|45 x 12||4.2||1.3|
|45 x 20||7.07||2.15|
|50 x 4||1.57||2|
|50 x 5||1.96||0.6|
|50 x 6||2.36||0.7|
|50 x 8||3.14||1|
|50 x 10||3.9||1.2|
|50 x 12||4.7||1.4|
|50 x 16||6.28||1.9|
|50 x 20||7.85||2.4|
|50 x 25||9.8||3|
|50 x 32||12.56||3.83|
|60 x 6||2.83||0.87|
|63 x 6||3||0.9|
|65 x 5||2.55||0.78|
|65 x 6||3.06||0.93|
|65 x 8||4.08||1.2|
|65 x 10||5.1||1.6|
|65 x 12||6.1||1.9|
|65 x 16||8.16||2.5|
|65 x 20||10.2||3.1|
|65 x 25||12.8||3.9|
|65 x 32||16.33||4.98|
|65 x 40||20.41||6.22|
|65 x 50||25.51||7.78|
|75 x 5||5.7||1.7|
|75 x 6||3.53||1.1|
|75 x 8||4.71||1.4|
|75 x 10||5.89||1.8|
|75 x 12||7.7||2.1|
|75 x 16||9.42||2.9|
|75 x 20||11.8||3.6|
|75 x 25||14.7||4.5|
|75 x 32||18.9||4.5|
|75 x 40||23.6||7.2|
|75 x 50||29.44||8.97|
|80 x 8||5.02||1.53|
|80 x 10||6.28||1.97|
|100 x 5||3.93||1.2|
|100 x 6||4.71||1.4|
|100 x 8||6.28||1.9|
|100 x 10||7.85||2.4|
|100 x 12||9.42||2.9|
|100 x 16||12.56||3.8|
|100 x 20||15.7||4.8|
|100 x 25||19.6||6|
|100 x 30||23.55||7.18|
|100 x 32||25.12||7.66|
|100 x 40||31.4||9.57|
|100 x 50||39.25||11.96|
|125 x 6||5.9||1.8|
|125 x 8||7.9||2.4|
|125 x 10||9.8||3|
|125 x 12||11.8||3.6|
|125 x 16||15.7||4.8|
|125 x 20||19.6||6|
|125 x 25||24.5||7.5|
|125 x 32||31.4||9.57|
|125 x 40||39.25||11.96|
|130 x 12||12.25||3.73|
|150 x 6||7.07||2.2|
|150 x 8||9.42||2.9|
|150 x 10||11.8||3.6|
|150 x 12||14.1||4.3|
|150 x 16||18.8||5.7|
|150 x 20||23.6||7.2|
|150 x 25||29.4||8.9|
|150 x 32||37.68||11.48|
|150 x 40||47.1||14.36|
|160 x 30||37.68||11.94|
|178 X 6||8.38||2.56|
|178 X 8||11.18||3.41|
|180 X 12||16.96||5.17|
|180 X 20||28.26||8.62|
|200 x 6||9.4||2.9|
|200 x 8||12.56||3.8|
|200 x 10||15.7||4.8|
|200 x 12||18.8||5.7|
|200 x 16||25.1||7.7|
|200 x 20||31.4||9.6|
|200 x 25||39.2||12|
|250 x 6||11.8||3.6|
|250 x 8||15.7||4.8|
|250 x 10||19.6||6|
|250 x 12||23.6||7.2|
|250 x 16||31.4||9.6|
|250 x 20||39.2||12|
|250 x 25||49.1||15|
|300 x 6||14.1||4.3|
|300 x 8||18.8||5.8|
|300 x 10||23.55||7.2|
|300 x 12||28.3||8.6|
|300 x 16||37.7||11.5|
|up to 50 mm: ± 1 mm||up to 12 mm: ± 0.5 mm; over 12 mm: 4% and max not exceeding 1.5 mm||Up to 3 mm thick: +5/-3%; Over 3 mm : ± 5%||For fixed length : ± 100 mm|
|50 mm to 75 mm: ± 1.5 mm|
|75 mm to 100 mm: ± 2 mm|
|100 mm and above ± 2%|
|and maximum not exceding 6 mm|
The Forging Process of forged bars
Ingot Casting: The Foundation of Forged Bars
In the forging process of forged bars, ingot casting plays a crucial role as the initial step. High-quality ingots are produced by melting raw materials in a furnace and pouring molten metal into molds. The ingots are left to cool and solidify, producing a raw material that can be further processed into forged bars.
Forging: Transforming Ingots into Forged Bars
The next step is forging, where the ingot is heated to a high temperature and then subjected to mechanical deformation using specialized equipment such as hammers or presses. The metal’s internal structure is altered during this process, improving mechanical properties and a more refined grain structure.
Forging temperature control: When stainless steel is forged, its deformation resistance is very sensitive to temperature changes, especially during rough forging. Due to the low forging speed, the temperature rise caused by deformation work is insufficient to compensate for the temperature drop of the forged part itself, resulting in a large temperature difference between the head and tail, affecting product tolerance. Surface and internal defects may also appear on forged parts, affecting the uniformity of final product performance. The heated steel billet is forged through rough forging to solve the above problems. Then enter the oil (or gas) insulation furnace or induction heating furnace between rough and medium forging. After temperature homogenization, it enters the intermediate forging unit. To control the excessive temperature and rise of the forged parts during precision forging and pre-precision forging processes, a water-cooling device (water tank) is usually installed between the frames of two forging machines and precision forging units. Therefore, this can achieve reasonable control of particle size, thereby improving the technical performance of the final product.
Heating method for stainless steel: Austenitic stainless steel has a stable structure during heating and cannot be strengthened through quenching. This kind of steel has good strength and toughness matching, excellent low-temperature toughness, and non-magnetic, good processing, forming, and welding properties, but easy to produce work hardening. At the same time, this type of steel has low thermal conductivity and excellent plasticity at low temperatures, so that the heating speed can be faster than that of ferritic stainless steel and slightly lower than that of plain carbon steel. Ferritic stainless steel does not undergo phase transformation during heating and generally cannot be strengthened by heat treatment. This type of steel has three types of brittle transformation, namely 475 ℃ brittleness, a-phase precipitation brittleness, and brittleness caused by grain growth. Annealing, followed by rapid cooling, is often used to achieve good performance. The oxidation resistance of high Cr steel at high temperatures; Not sensitive to stress corrosion; The strength of steel is higher than that of austenitic stainless steel; The toughness increases with the decrease of C and Ni content; Has strong magnetism; Poor welding performance. This kind of steel has good hot working, but the plasticity of ferrite is very low at the low-temperature stage.
In addition, the residual stress generated when the billet (ingot) is cooled is in the same direction as the thermal stress generated during heating (because there is no phase transformation during heating and cooling), which can overlap each other, so hot cracking is easy to occur. So the billet (ingot) should be slowly heated during the low-temperature stage. The charging temperature of the steel ingot should not exceed 800. In addition, the residual stress generated when the billet (ingot) is cooled is in the same direction as the thermal stress generated during heating (because there is no phase transformation during heating and cooling), which can overlap each other, so hot cracking is easy to occur. So the billet (ingot) should be slowly heated during the low-temperature stage. The charging temperature of the steel ingot should not exceed 800 ℃, and the steel billet should not exceed 850 ℃. When the Cr content is greater than 16%, the as-cast structure is very coarse, which is easy to produce a coarse grain structure. The grains broken by hot working tend to grow when the temperature exceeds 950 ℃. Because there is no phase transformation during heating and cooling, heat treatment cannot modify the grown grains. At the same time, this kind of steel is a ferrite of the body-centered cubic lattice with low recrystallization temperature, high recrystallization speed, and good plasticity after recrystallization; the deformation resistance during hot working is small. Deformation at a lower temperature and this temperature are generally controlled to obtain the required fine grain structure. The heating temperature is generally about 950 ℃ – 1000 ℃.
Quench: Rapid Cooling for Enhanced Hardness
After forging, the forged bar undergoes quenching to increase its hardness and strength. The quenching process involves rapidly cooling the hot metal by immersing it in a liquid, typically water or oil. This rapid cooling causes the metal’s microstructure to transform, resulting in improved mechanical properties.
One Extrusion: Shaping the Forged Bar
In the one extrusion phase, the forged bar is further processed and shaped by forcing it through a die, a tool with a specific shape that imparts the desired cross-sectional profile to the metal. This step ensures that the forged bar meets the required dimensions and has a uniform profile.
Secondary Extrusion: Fine-tuning the Forged Bar
Secondary extrusion is an additional step to refine the bar’s shape and ensure it meets tight tolerances. This process is similar to the one extrusion phase but uses a more precise die for better accuracy.
Surface Treatment: Enhancing the Bar’s Appearance and Performance
Surface treatment is applied to the forged bar to improve its appearance and performance characteristics. Various surface treatment techniques, including polishing, shot peening, or chemical treatments, can be used. These methods can enhance the bar’s corrosion resistance, wear resistance, and overall aesthetic appeal.
Clean: Ensuring a Pristine Product
The forged bar is cleaned to remove residual contaminants or debris from the previous processes. This step ensures a high-quality final product and prevents issues during subsequent processing.
Coreless Grinding: Smoothing and Refining the Surface
Coreless grinding is a finishing process that removes surface imperfections and imparts a smooth, polished finish to the forged bar. This step enhances the bar’s appearance and ensures a uniform surface, crucial for its performance in various applications.
Straightening: Correcting any Deformations
After coreless grinding, the forged bar may have developed slight bends or deformations. Straightening is performed to correct these imperfections and ensure the bar meets the required dimensional specifications.
Finished Annealing: Stress Relief and Microstructure Refinement
Finished annealing is a heat treatment process that relieves internal stresses in the forged bar and refines its microstructure. This step is essential for enhancing the bar’s mechanical properties, such as toughness and ductility, and ensuring optimal performance in its intended applications.
Cut Off: Achieving the Desired Length
The forged bar is cut to the specified length using advanced cutting equipment. This process ensures that the bar meets the required dimensions and can be easily integrated into various applications.
Multi-Pass Rotary Forging: Optimizing Material Properties
Multi-pass rotary forging is an advanced technique that improves the forged bar’s mechanical properties by applying for multiple, controlled deformation passes. This process refines the metal’s grain structure, enhancing strength, ductility, and overall performance.
Cutting Length: Precision Sizing for Specific Applications
The forged bar is cut to the precise length required for specific applications using advanced cutting equipment. This ensures the final product meets the exact dimensional requirements and can be seamlessly integrated into various industries and projects.
Inspection of bars
Bar inspection is a key process to ensure that product quality meets product technical standards and conditions. Product inspection usually includes bar shape size, surface quality, fixed length, weight deviation, process performance, mechanical performance, etc. Bars not meeting product quality standards must be picked out and classified for disposal.
Common defects and preventive measures on the surface of products. Bars and wire products usually require that the surface not have defects such as cracks, folds, ears, scars, layering, and inclusions.
a. The occurrence and prevention of crack defects
Characteristics: There are scattered hair-like fine lines of varying depths on the surface of steel billets or bars, generally arranged unevenly along the rolling direction.
Causes: subcutaneous bubbles, surface pores, non-metallic inclusions in continuous casting billets, uneven heating temperature, low steel temperature, improper cooling after rolling (such as high-quality carbon structural steel), etc.
Preventive measures: In steelmaking, the smelting and degassing of molten steel should be done well, the tapping temperature should be reduced, protective casting should be used to avoid secondary oxidation, and Steel rolling should reasonably control the furnace temperature and cooling rate.
Characteristics: Defects with locally long or continuous approximate cracks on the bar’s surface along the rolling direction. Generally, in a straight-line shape.
Reason for occurrence: Ears, severe scratches, or uneven rolling of rolled semi-finished products, resulting in an inability to extend the edges and corners during rolling.
Preventive measures: Reasonably control the size of semi-finished rolled pieces and frequently use wooden sticks to check for ear and pass misalignment on both sides of the roll gap during the production process; Pay attention to the operation of the rolled piece.
Characteristics: The two or one side of the bar roll gap are overfilled along the rolling direction, resulting in local or continuous protrusions.
Reason for occurrence: Large incoming material from the finished product’s front hole rolled piece; The imported guide is biased or loose, and the rolled piece is not supported properly; Axial roller movement; Uneven heating or low temperature; Finished product hole wear produces protrusions with steps.
Preventive measures: Reasonable control of heating furnace temperature and semi-finished product size; Strict adjustment of guidance devices; Improve the pre-assembly accuracy of the rolling mill; Timing and quantitative inverted hole type.
Characteristics: The bar’s surface exhibits “tongue-shaped” or “nail-shaped” scars of varying sizes, uneven thickness, and irregular appearance. Closed or unclosed, With or without roots. There is usually iron oxide skin underneath the scar. A raised scar is also known as raised skin.
Causes: Defects such as scabs, double skin, and inclusions in the steel billet; There are local protrusions in the semi-finished rolled parts; Hole shaped chipping or trachoma; Poor hole scoring or welding scars; The rolled piece slips within the pass; The exterior metal is rolled into the surface of the rolled piece; External objects scratch the semi-finished rolled parts, etc.
Preventive measures: Unqualified steel billets are not allowed to enter the furnace; When using notches or welding scars for the hole pattern, the shape and height of the notches and welding scars should be smooth and smooth; Strengthen the quality inspection of rolling rolls; Reasonable hole design; Low temperature and blackhead steel rolling are strictly prohibited; Regularly check the wear of the hole pattern and promptly reverse the hole pattern; The rolling equipment and operating site should be clean and smooth.
e. Scratches (scratches, abrasions)
Characteristics: There are local or intermittent grooves on the bar’s surface, usually straight or curved.
Cause of occurrence: Improper installation of import and export guide processing or scratches on rolling piece transportation equipment; Unfavorable rolling parts slotting.
Preventive measures: Correct processing, installation, and use of import and export guide facilities; The rolling equipment and operating site should be clean and smooth.
Characteristics: The bar’s surface has local periodic or irregular concave defects.
Reason for occurrence: There are protrusions or adhered oxide scales on the rolling pass; The bar’s surface is free of root and scar shedding; Foreign metal objects are inserted into the pass and rolled off to form.
Preventive measures: The cooling water for the hole should be clean and sufficient in quantity; The quality of the steel billet should be qualified; The production environment should be free of debris.
Ultrasonic Examination: Ensuring Quality and Detecting Defects
Ultrasonic examination is a non-destructive testing method to inspect the forged bar for internal defects or inconsistencies. This technique uses high-frequency sound waves to detect imperfections, ensuring that the final product is of the highest quality and free from any flaws that could impact its performance.
Physical and Chemical Inspection: Verifying Material Composition and Properties
A thorough physical and chemical inspection is conducted to verify the forged bar’s material composition and properties. This step ensures that the bar meets the required specifications and is suitable for its intended applications. The inspection process may include tests such as tensile strength, impact resistance, and chemical analysis.
Appearance Inspection: Ensuring a Flawless Finish
The forged bar’s appearance is inspected to ensure a visually flawless finish, free from any surface imperfections or inconsistencies. This step is crucial for maintaining a high-quality product that meets the aesthetic expectations of customers and end-users.
Finished Product: The Result of a Rigorous Forging Process
After passing through all the steps mentioned above, the forged bar is considered a finished product, ready for use in various applications. Its enhanced mechanical properties, precise dimensions, and refined appearance make it suitable for various industries, such as automotive, aerospace, and construction.
Packing: Safeguarding the Forged Bar for Transit
The finished forged bar is carefully packed to protect it from damage during transportation. Various packing materials and methods are employed to ensure the bar arrives at its destination in pristine condition, ready for integration into the end user’s project or application.
Metering: Precise Measurement for Quality Assurance
Metering involves precisely measuring the forged bar’s dimensions, weight, and other properties. This step is essential for maintaining strict quality control and ensuring the final product meets the required specifications.
Warehousing: Safe Storage for the Finished Forged Bar
Lastly, the finished forged bar is stored in a secure warehouse until it is ready to be shipped to the customer. Proper warehousing ensures the bar is protected from environmental factors and remains in optimal condition until it is needed for its intended application.
Diagnosis, Analysis, and Handling of Bar Production Process Faults
(1) The rolled piece does not enter
Causes of occurrence: rough end, split end, black end, etc. of rolled parts; Improper or too small installation of imported guide rails; There are sticky iron or foreign objects in the import guide; The flipping angle of the rolled piece is too large or too small; The rolling guide wheel does not rotate, or the bearing is burnt out; The roller does not rotate due to breakage or connection; Improper adjustment of roller gap or non-conforming incoming material size; The friction coefficient of the rolling pass is too small (new pass), etc.
Analysis, handling, and preventive measures
- ① Analyze the reasons for nonentry of rolled parts, strengthen the inspection of head defects of rolled parts, and promptly handle them;
- ② After the installation of the imported guide, measure the width of the inlet inner cavity using an internal caliper; Illuminate with light and check whether the inlet guide is aligned with the hole type from the outlet direction, and tighten the guide bolts;
- ③ Check and measure the actual material size of the rolled piece with a caliper to ensure that the incoming material size is correct;
- ④ Adjust the gap size of the roller strictly according to the rolling requirements;
- ⑤ Regularly inspect and replace the rolling guide wheel and torsion outlet promptly; Regularly inspect the imported guide plate for any iron chips, accumulated oxide scales, or debris;
- ⑥ The new hole type should first be tested with small materials.
(2) Rolling piece stacking fault
Steel stacking failure refers to the phenomenon where the rolled pieces between rolling mills or rolling mill units stop moving after stacking, and it is called steel stacking failure.
① Reason for occurrence
- a. The incoming size and cross-sectional area of the rolled piece are too large; The rolled piece itself has a surface or internal quality defects;
- b. Insufficient friction coefficient of the roll pass, resulting in slipping of the rolled piece;
- c. The second volume flow rate of the incoming rolling mill is greater than the second volume flow rate of the receiving rolling mill;
- d. The electrical control system is faulty or out of control.
- e. The mechanical operating parts or photoelectric control instruments of the automatic loop system are installed incorrectly, out of control, or malfunctioning.
② Analysis, handling, and preventive measures
- a. Adjust the size and area of the incoming material to meet a reasonable continuous rolling constant relationship;
- b. Dynamically and closely monitor the operation status of rolled parts and make timely adjustments;
- c. Ensure the quality of incoming steel billets; Timely handle semi-finished rolled parts with quality defects;
- d. Regularly check each rolling mill’s rotation speed, loop system, and electrical control system to ensure stable and normal operation of the equipment and electrical control system.
(3) Rolling steel drawing fault
Steel pulling failure refers to excessive tension or breakage of rolled pieces between rolling mills or rolling mill units, known as steel pulling failure. Due to steel drawing failures, the size of the rolled piece often changes, and in severe cases, it can even lead to the appearance size or out-of-roundness of the finished product exceeding the tolerance, resulting in scrap.
① Reason for occurrence
- a. The incoming size and cross-sectional area of the rolled piece are too small;
- b. The second volume flow rate of the incoming rolling mill is smaller than the second volume flow rate of the receiving rolling mill;
- c. The electrical control system is faulty or out of control.
② Analysis, handling, and preventive measures
- a. Adjust the size and area of the incoming material to meet a good continuous rolling constant relationship.
- b. Ensure the normal operation of electrical and electronic control equipment systems.
How to Measure Forged Bars?
Forged bars are crucial in numerous industries, including automotive, aerospace, and manufacturing. These bars must be measured accurately to meet quality standards and specific dimensions for their intended applications. This article will discuss how to measure forged bars and the tools and techniques used in the process.
Why Measure Forged Bars?
Measuring forged bars serves several purposes, including:
Ensuring proper dimensions
Ensuring that the forged bars have the correct dimensions for their intended applications is vital. Incorrect dimensions could lead to component failure, costly repairs, or even catastrophic accidents.
Meeting quality standards
Industries that use forged bars have strict quality standards that must be met. Accurate measurements are essential to ensure the forged bars comply with these standards.
Monitoring production processes
Manufacturers can monitor their production processes by measuring forged bars and identify any issues that may require attention or adjustments.
Tools and Equipment for Measuring Forged Bars
There are several tools and equipment used for measuring forged bars, including:
Calipers are versatile instruments that measure length, diameter, and thickness. They come in various types, such as vernier, dial, and digital calipers.
Micrometers offer higher precision than calipers and measure smaller dimensions such as diameter and thickness.
Optical comparators are used to inspect and measure the geometric properties of forged bars, including their straightness and surface quality.
Importance of accurate length measurement
Accurate length measurements are crucial for ensuring the proper fit and function of the forged bars in their intended applications.
Length measurement process
To measure the length of a forged bar, use a calibrated measuring tape or a large vernier caliper. Ensure the measuring tool is parallel to the bar and record the measurement.
Importance of accurate diameter measurement
Diameter measurements are essential for determining the correct fit between components, ensuring proper functionality, and preventing failure.
Diameter measurement process
To measure the diameter of a forged bar, use a caliper or a micrometer. Place the measuring tool around the bar’s circumference and ensure it is perpendicular to the surface. Record the measurement and repeat the process at different points along the bar to check for consistency.
Importance of accurate thickness measurement
Accurate thickness measurements are crucial for maintaining the structural integrity of the forged bar and ensuring that it meets the required specifications.
Thickness measurement process
To measure the thickness of a forged bar, use a caliper or micrometer. Place the measuring tool across the width of the bar, ensuring it is perpendicular to the surface. Record the measurement and repeat the process at different points along the bar to check for consistency.
Inspect the surface of the forged bar for any defects, such as cracks, pits, or inclusions, which could compromise its quality and performance. This can be done with the naked eye, magnifying glass, or microscope.
Ultrasonic testing is a non-destructive method that uses high-frequency sound waves to detect defects within the material. This technique can identify subsurface flaws that may not be visible during a visual inspection.
To assess the straightness of a forged bar, place it on a flat surface and use a straight edge or a ruler to check for any deviations. This method is suitable for quick checks but may not be the most accurate.
Laser scanning offers a more precise and efficient method for assessing the straightness of forged bars. A laser scanner measures the deviation of the bar’s surface from a reference plane, providing accurate and detailed information about its straightness.
Analyzing the chemical composition of a forged bar helps ensure that it meets the required specifications for its intended application. This can be done using spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, or combustion analysis methods.
Testing the mechanical properties of a forged bar, such as its tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness, ensures that it meets the required performance criteria. Mechanical testing can be performed using methods such as tensile testing, impact testing, and hardness testing.
Dimensional Tolerance and Geometric Accuracy
Importance of tolerances
Dimensional tolerances specify the allowable variations in the dimensions of a forged bar. Meeting these tolerances ensures proper fit and function in the intended application.
Checking geometric accuracy
Geometric accuracy refers to the shape and form of a forged bar. This can be assessed using tools such as optical comparators or coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) to measure the bar’s features and compare them to the required specifications.
Quality Control and Certification
Importance of quality control
Quality control ensures that forged bars meet the required specifications and performance criteria. Regular inspections and measurements can help identify any issues early in production.
Types of certifications
Certifications, such as ISO 9001 or AS9100, help demonstrate that a manufacturer’s processes and products meet industry standards for quality and reliability.
Common Mistakes in Forged Bar Measurements
Using accurate or poorly calibrated measuring tools can lead to correct measurements and potential issues in the final product.
Inaccurate measurements can also result from operator error, such as incorrect positioning of the measuring tool or misreading the measurement.
Inconsistent measurement process
Inconsistency in the measurement process can lead to measurement variations, affecting the forged bar’s quality and performance.
Tips for Accurate Forged Bar Measurements
Ensure all measuring tools are properly calibrated and maintained to guarantee accurate measurements.
Provide adequate training to operators to minimize errors and ensure consistent measurement processes.
Implement standardized procedures for measuring forged bars, and ensure that all operators adhere to these procedures to maintain consistency and accuracy.
Accurately measuring forged bars is essential for ensuring their quality, performance, and compliance with industry standards. By using the appropriate tools and techniques, implementing strict quality control measures, and adhering to standardized procedures, manufacturers can produce high-quality forged bars that meet the requirements of their intended applications.
Application of Forged Bars
Forged bars’ unique properties and advantages make them ideal for various applications across different industries:
- 1. Automotive Industry: Forged bars are commonly used in the automotive industry to produce essential components such as connecting rods, transmission gears, and axle shafts. These components require high strength and durability to withstand harsh operating conditions and ensure vehicle reliability and performance.
- 2. Aerospace Industry: The aerospace industry relies on forged bars for manufacturing critical components such as landing gear, engine parts, and structural components. The superior strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and durability offered by forged bars make them ideal for aerospace applications, where safety and performance are crucial.
- 3. Oil and Gas Industry: Forged bars are employed in the oil and gas industry for manufacturing valves, fittings, flanges, and other components exposed to high pressure and temperature conditions. The improved mechanical properties and resistance to fatigue offered by forged bars make them suitable for these demanding applications.
- 4. Power Generation Industry: In power generation, forged bars manufacture turbine components, generator parts, and other high-stress components. These components require high strength, resistance to wear, and the ability to withstand high temperatures and pressures, making forged bars an ideal choice.
- 5. Shipbuilding and Marine Industry: The shipbuilding and marine industry benefit from the corrosion resistance, strength, and durability of forged bars. They are used to manufacture propeller shafts, rudders, and other structural components that need to withstand the corrosive marine environment.
- 6. Heavy Machinery and Equipment: Forged bars produce gears, shafts, and other components. These components require high strength and durability to withstand extreme operating conditions and minimize wear and tear.
- 7. Construction Industry: The construction industry uses forged bars to manufacture anchors, fasteners, and other components that provide structural support and stability. The increased strength and durability of forged bars make them suitable for these applications.
How to purchase the correct forged bars?
To purchase the correct forged bars, there are several factors to take into account:
Material of Forged Bars
Selecting the right material is crucial for your project. Common materials for forged bars include carbon steel, stainless steel, alloy steel, aluminum, copper, and titanium. Each material has its advantages and disadvantages, so choosing the one that best suits your application is essential.
Size and Shape of Forged Bars
The size and shape of the forged bar should match the requirements of your project. Consider the dimensions, such as length, diameter, or thickness, and the overall shape (round or flat). Custom sizes and shapes can also be requested from the supplier.
Tolerance and Straightness of Forged Bars
Tolerance refers to the allowable variation in dimensions, while straightness is the degree to which the bar is free of bends or twists. Higher tolerance and straightness standards ensure better quality and performance of the forged bars. Make sure to specify your desired tolerance and straightness requirements when purchasing.
Surface Finish of Forged Bars
The surface finish of a forged bar can affect its performance, corrosion resistance, and appearance. Common surface finishes include hot-rolled, cold-drawn, turned, and polished. The choice of surface finish depends on your application and aesthetic preferences.
Heat Treatment of Forged Bars
Heat treatment can significantly alter the mechanical properties of the forged bars, such as hardness, strength, and ductility. Depending on your application, you may require specific heat treatment processes like annealing, normalizing, quenching, or tempering. Ensure your supplier can provide your forged bars with the necessary heat treatment services.
Quality Certifications of Forged Bars
Quality certifications, such as ISO, ASTM, or ASME, ensure that the forged bars meet specific industry standards and requirements. Look for suppliers with these certifications to guarantee you’re purchasing high-quality products.
Budget and Pricing of Forged Bars
The cost of forged bars can vary depending on the material, size, and additional processing. Compare prices from different suppliers and consider your budget while making your decision. Keep in mind that quality should not be compromised for the sake of lower prices.
Purchasing the correct forged bars is crucial for the success of your project. By understanding the forging process, considering factors like material, size, shape, and quality certifications, and choosing the right supplier, you can ensure that you’re investing in high-quality products that meet your needs. With the right forged bars, you can enhance the performance, durability, and longevity of your applications, contributing to the overall success of your project.
How to select forged bars manufacturer?
Selecting the manufacturer of the right forged bar requires careful consideration of various factors, including quality, experience, capacity, customization, certification, pricing, location, reputation, and additional services offered. By considering all these aspects, you can make an informed decision and choose a reliable and experienced manufacturer that will deliver high-quality forged bars for your project.
Factors to Consider when Selecting a Forged Bars Manufacturer
The quality of the forged bars is of paramount importance. Always choose a manufacturer that adheres to strict quality control standards and utilizes advanced technology to produce high-quality forged bars.
The manufacturer’s experience in the industry is an essential factor to consider. An experienced manufacturer will have the knowledge and expertise to produce high-quality forged bars and meet your requirements.
The production capacity of the manufacturer should be taken into account. Ensure the manufacturer can handle your order volume, whether a small or large-scale project.
Your project may require customized forged bars with unique specifications. Choose a manufacturer offering customization options, ensuring they meet your specific needs.
Check if the manufacturer holds relevant certifications, such as ISO or AS9100. These certifications are an indication of their commitment to quality and industry standards.
While pricing should not be the sole determining factor, it is essential to consider the cost of the forged bars. Select a manufacturer that offers competitive pricing without compromising quality.
The location of the manufacturer can affect shipping times and logistics costs. Opt for a conveniently located manufacturer that can deliver the forged bars within your desired timeframe.
Evaluating a Manufacturer’s Reputation
A. Customer Reviews
Read through customer reviews and testimonials to understand the manufacturer’s reputation. Positive feedback from satisfied customers is a good indication of the manufacturer’s reliability and commitment to quality.
B. Industry Recognition
Look for manufacturers that have received industry awards or recognition, which indicates their dedication to excellence and innovation in forged bars manufacturing.
Additional Services Offered
A. In-House Testing
Choose a manufacturer that offers in-house testing and inspection services. This ensures that the forged bars meet your specifications and quality requirements before shipping them.
B. On-Time Delivery
On-time delivery is crucial for any project. Select a manufacturer with a track record of delivering orders on time to avoid potential delays or disruptions to your project schedule.
C. After-Sales Support
After-sales support is an essential aspect of any business relationship. Choose a manufacturer that offers excellent customer service and support, including addressing any concerns or issues you may have with the forged bars after delivery.
Why Choose Guanxin to Be Your forged bar Supplier?
At Guanxin, we pride ourselves on providing top-notch forged bars that meet industry standards. Our state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities and experienced team of engineers ensure that every forged bar we produce is exceptional, with precise dimensions and impeccable surface finish. By choosing Guanxin as your forged bar supplier, you can be confident that you are receiving products that will exceed your expectations and stand the test of time.
Wide Range of Materials and Sizes
Our extensive selection of materials and sizes sets us apart from other forged bar suppliers. We offer a diverse range of metals, including stainless steel, alloy steel, carbon steel, and superalloys, to meet the unique requirements of various industries. Our forged bars are available in various diameters and lengths, ensuring we can fulfill any order, no matter how specialized or demanding.
Tailored Solutions for Your Specific Needs
At Guanxin, we understand that each customer has unique requirements and challenges. That’s why we offer customized solutions tailored to your specific needs. Our skilled engineers will work closely with you to develop and produce forged bars that meet your specifications. Whether you require a particular material, size, or surface finish, we have the expertise and resources to deliver the perfect solution for your project.
Competitive Pricing and Exceptional Value
We know that cost is crucial when selecting a forged bar supplier. At Guanxin, we are committed to providing our customers with competitive pricing without compromising quality. Our streamlined manufacturing processes and extensive industry experience allow us to offer exceptional value, ensuring that you receive the best possible product at a fair price.
Fast Lead Times and Reliable Delivery
In today’s fast-paced business world, time is of the essence. We understand the importance of delivering your forged bars promptly and reliably. Our efficient production processes and well-established logistics network ensure that your order will be completed and delivered on time every time. By choosing Guanxin as your forged bar supplier, you can rest assured that your project will stay on track and schedule.
Unparalleled Customer Support
Customer satisfaction is at the core of our business. Our dedicated customer support team is always available to answer any questions or address any concerns. From the moment you place your order to the final delivery of your forged bars, we will be with you every step to ensure a seamless and hassle-free experience.
Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing
At Guanxin, we recognize the importance of protecting the environment and are committed to sustainable manufacturing practices. Our eco-friendly production processes and adherence to strict environmental regulations ensure that our forged bars are produced with minimal environmental impact. By choosing Guanxin as your forged bar supplier, you can be confident that you are partnering with a company that values and prioritizes environmental responsibility.
Global Presence and Reputation
As a leading global forged bar supplier, Guanxin has established a strong presence and reputation in the international market. Our extensive network of satisfied customers and partners is a testament to our commitment to quality, innovation, and customer service. By partnering with Guanxin, you can be assured that you are working with a company with the expertise and resources to support your business globally.
State-of-the-Art Research and Development
Innovation is at the heart of our success at Guanxin. Our research and development team is constantly exploring new materials, technologies, and manufacturing techniques to improve the performance and durability of our forged bars. By staying at the forefront of industry advancements, we can offer our customers cutting-edge products that set the standard for quality and performance. When you choose Guanxin as your forged bar supplier, you can be sure that you are receiving products incorporating the latest industry innovations.
Strict Quality Control and Assurance
To guarantee the highest quality forged bars, we have implemented a rigorous quality control and assurance system at every stage of the production process. From selecting raw materials to the final inspection and testing finished products, our experienced quality control team ensures that every forged bar meets our strict quality standards. By maintaining our unwavering commitment to quality, we can provide our customers with forged bars they can trust to perform reliably in even the most demanding applications.
Certifications and Compliance
As a leading forged bar supplier, Guanxin is fully committed to complying with all applicable industry standards and regulations. We hold various certifications, including ISO, demonstrating our dedication to maintaining the highest levels of quality and safety in our products and processes. By choosing Guanxin as your forged bar supplier, you can be certain that you are partnering with a company that values compliance and adheres to the strictest industry standards.
Long-Term Partnerships and Collaboration
At Guanxin, we believe in building long-lasting relationships with our customers and partners. By fostering a collaborative environment and maintaining open lines of communication, we can better understand your needs and work together to achieve your goals. Our commitment to long-term partnerships ensures we can provide ongoing support and resources to help your business grow and succeed.
Experience and Expertise
With years of experience in the forged bar industry, our team of skilled professionals has the knowledge and expertise to provide you with the best possible solutions for your projects. Our in-depth understanding of various industries unique requirements and challenges enables us to offer expert guidance and advice to help you make the best decisions for your business.
Guanxin is the ideal choice for your forged bar supplier due to our commitment to quality, innovation, customer satisfaction, and environmental responsibility. Our extensive range of products, tailored solutions, competitive pricing, fast lead times, and exceptional customer support make us the preferred partner for businesses worldwide. By choosing Guanxin as your forged bar supplier, you can be confident that you are working with a company dedicated to your success.
Export Country For Forged Bars
|MIDDLE EAST||AFRICA||NORTH AMERICA||EUROPE||ASIA||SOUTH AMERICA|
|Oman||Sudan||Trinidad And Tobago||Spain||South Korea||Ecuador|
|Turkey||The Republic Of Congo||Bahamas||Netherland||Sri Lanka||Paraguay|
What is the difference between forged bars and cast bars?
Forged bars are made by heating and deforming metal, while cast bars are made by pouring molten metal into a mold. Forging results in improved mechanical properties, better grain structure, and increased dimensional accuracy compared to casting.
Can I order custom sizes and shapes of forged bars?
Yes, most suppliers offer custom forging services to produce forged bars in specific sizes and shapes, as per your requirements. Make sure to provide detailed specifications to the supplier to get the desired outcome.
How can I ensure the quality of the forged bars I purchase?
Look for suppliers with quality certifications such as ISO, ASTM, or ASME, and check their track record by reading reviews and testimonials from previous clients. Additionally, request material test reports and other quality documentation to verify the quality of the bars.
Is heat treatment necessary for all forged bars?
Heat treatment is not always necessary, but it can significantly improve the mechanical properties of forged bars, depending on the application. Consult with your supplier to determine if heat treatment is required for your specific project.